The following components are managed by NASA's Earth Science Mission Operations (ESMO) Project.

Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Operations System (EDOS)

NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Operations System (EDOS) captures high-rate science and engineering data from the EOS spacecraft and instruments, processes telemetry to generate and maintain a backup archive of Level 0 Science Data Products (raw satellite data) for the Terra, Aqua, and Aura missions. It removes telemetry artifacts, creates sets of non-overlapping raw data as sensed by the individual instruments over specific time intervals, and sends them to the appropriate Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs). In the case of a data loss at any of the DAACs, the data can be recovered from the backup archive within EDOS. In the case of loss of a part of the backup level 0 data within EDOS, the corresponding data can be recovered from the appropriate DAAC. Level 0 data are provided by EDOS to a given DAAC as Production Data Sets or Expedited Data Sets for processing by the DAAC or an associated Science, Investigator-led Processing System (SIPS).

The interface between control centers and ground stations for Terra, Aqua, and Aura is provided by NASA's EOS Real time Processing System (ERPS). ERPS provides ground services for data processing, distribution, and storage for low-rate return link data, and processing, delivery, and logging for forward link data conforming to the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) Recommendations for Space/Ground Data Communications. ERPS provides the capability to use Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) for the transfer of real-time data between the NASA Goddard-based EOS Operations Center (EOC) and the remote ground terminals.

Flight Operations Segment (FOS)

NASA's Flight Operations Segment (FOS) consists of the EOS Operations Center (EOC) located at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center and a number of Instrument Support Terminals (ISTs) at the instrument teams' facilities. The EOC controls Terra, Aqua, and Aura, provides mission planning and scheduling, and monitors health and safety of the spacecraft and instruments. It provides tools to coordinate observations from multiple instruments and develop conflict-free schedules, validate commands to assure safety, accommodate unplanned schedule changes, develop and provide mission timelines, and develop and implement contingency plans. The EOC interacts with the various elements of the ground systems and space network as necessary to send commands to the EOS spacecraft and to receive health and safety data from the spacecraft, and also interacts with the International Partners' instrument control centers for exchange of planning and command and control information. The EOC is implemented using a combination of commercial mission control systems and custom software developed as the EOS Mission Operations System (EMOS).

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