Sensors are instruments that collect data about Earth processes or atmospheric components. Along with being carried aboard satellites or aircraft, sensors also can be installed on the ground (in situ). There are two types of sensors: active and passive. Active sensors provide their own source of energy to illuminate the objects they observe; passive sensors detect energy emitted or reflected from the environment. The following list describes sensors aboard NASA and joint NASA missions.

SLSTR, on-board Sentinel-3, provides a reference land surface temperature and sea surface temperature dataset for climate data records.
Measured how much chlorophyll was present in the seas and on land.
SeaWinds was a specialized microwave radar that measured near-surface wind velocity and cloud cover over Earth's oceans.
Sentinel-1 C-band SAR supports operational applications in the priority areas of marine monitoring, land monitoring and emergency management services.
A mobile Doppler weather radar platform.
Used to gather topographic (elevation) data of Earth's surface, SRTM used interferometry.
This instrument measures the thickness of snow on top of sea ice, which allows researchers to make more accurate sea ice thickness measurements.
SOLSTICE was an ultraviolet spectrometer that measured the solar spectral irradiance of the total solar disk in the ultraviolet.
Measures atmospheric, ocean and terrain microwave brightness temperatures to provide: sea surface winds, rain rates, cloud water, precipitation, soil moisture, ice edge, ice age.
SIM measures how sunlight is distributed among the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared wavelengths.
SAGE is a grating spectrometer that measures ultraviolet and visible energy.
An advanced, multispectral scanning, Earth sensor designed to achieve higher image resolution, sharper spectral separation, improved geometric fidelity and greater radiometric accuracy and resolution than the MSS sensor.
TIRS measures land surface temperature in two thermal bands that enables the differentiation of cold spots (such as irrigated vegetation) from warm spots (such as recent burn scars).
Dual frequency radar altimeter that measured altimeter range, significant wave height and ionospheric correction.
TIM tracks variations in the amount of electromagnetic radiation emitted by the Sun.
TOMS measures "total column ozone" under all daytime observing and geophysical conditions. 
TMI is designed to provide quantitative rainfall information by carefully measuring the minute amounts of microwave energy emitted by the Earth and its atmosphere.
TES was an infrared sensor that measured chemical components of Earth’s troposphere including ozone, water vapor, carbon monoxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and nitric acid.
Uses passive remote sensing to measure, at the top of the atmosphere (TOA), the solar radiation reflected by and radiated from the earth.
Provided scanning laser altimetry data points of Alaskan glaciers and parts of East and West Antarctica.
UAVSAR produces polarimetric and interferometric products that highlight different features and show changes in the earth over time.
UARS was the first multi-instrumented satellite to observe numerous chemical constituents of the atmosphere with a goal of better understanding atmospheric photochemistry and transport.
A scanning radiometer which provides high resolution observations on cloud coverage, cloud type, and cloud top temperatures.
VIIRS collects visible and infrared imagery along with global observations of Earth’s land, atmosphere, cryosphere, and ocean.