Technology

Natural language processing is the ability of computers to analyze, understand and generate human language, including speech. The next stage of NLP is natural language interaction, which allows humans to communicate with computers using normal, everyday language to perform tasks.

Near real-time (NRT) data are made available more rapidly than routine processing allows, generally with 1-3 hours after a satellite observation.

The Network Common Data Form (NetCDF) file format provides a data model, software libraries, and machine-independent data format for geoscience data. Together, the netCDF interfaces, libraries, and format support the creation, access, and sharing of scientific data. 

Remote sensing of nighttime light emissions offers a unique perspective for investigations into human behaviors. The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instruments aboard the joint NASA/NOAA Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP) and NOAA-20 satellites provide global daily measurements of nocturnal visible and near-infrared (NIR) light that are suitable for Earth system science and applications studies. Learn more in the Nighttime Lights Backgrounder

NASA's Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center (ORNL DAAC) Web Coverage Service (WCS) enables users to download geospatial data from a remote server.

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center (ORNL DAAC) Thematic Real-time Environmental Distributed Data Services (THREDDS) Data Server (TDS) serves the contents of selected ORNL DAAC datasets through a catalog service and several data access services that allow users to find and access datasets of interest from within a simple, hierarchal catalog within a web browser or a compatible client software. The ORNL DAAC Web Map Service (WMS) can be accessed through THREDDS. 

The Level 1 and Level 2 Browser is the data search and discovery application for lower-level data at NASA’s Ocean Biology Distributed Active Archive Center (OB.DAAC). 

The Level 3 Browser is the data search and discovery application for higher-level data at NASA’s Ocean Biology Distributed Active Archive Center (OB.DAAC). 

The OpenGIS Keyhole Markup Language (OGC KML) share visual geographic content in web-based outline maps and 3D geospatial browsers, such as Google Earth. Its pervasiveness is based on widespread use in many fields beyond Earth science, openly available data streams, and tools which are easy to use and allow overlaying of information. 

NASA’s Earth Science Data Systems (ESDS) Program defines open science as a collaborative culture enabled by technology that empowers the open sharing of data, information, and knowledge within the scientific community and the wider public to accelerate scientific research and understanding.

Enables scientists to share data more easily over the internet. The OPeNDAP group is also the original developer of the Data Access Protocol (DAP) that the software uses. Many other groups have adopted DAP and provide compatible clients, servers, and SDKs. OPeNDAP’s DAP is also a NASA community standard. 

OpenAltimetry is a cyberinfrastructure platform for discovery, access, and visualization of data from NASA’s ICESat and ICESat-2 missions. It is the product of a collaboration between the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC), UNAVCO, the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, and the San Diego Supercomputer Center at UC San Diego.

Panoply, developed by NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS), is a cross-platform application that plots geo-referenced and other arrays, from Network Common Data Form (NetCDF), Hierarchical Data Format (HDF), and GRIdded Binary (GRIB). Panoply offers additional functionality, such as slicing and plotting arrays, combining arrays, and exporting plots and animations. 

NASA's Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC) provides access to Web Coverage Service (WCS) through its Thematic Real-time Environmental Distributed Data Services (THREDDS) Data Server (TDS). THREDDS is a web server that provides metadata and data access for scientific oceanography datasets using a variety of remote data access protocols. 

The NASA Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC) Web Map Service (WMS) is available through the Thematic Real-time Environmental Distributed Data Services (THREDDS) Data Server (TDS). TDS is a web server that provides metadata and data access for scientific oceanography datasets, using a variety of remote data access protocols, including WMS.

The Prediction Of Worldwide Energy Resources (POWER) is a geographic information system (GIS)-enabled interactive web portal that provides data products customized to three primary user communities: Renewable Energy, Sustainable Buildings, and Agroclimatology. These products are available from daily up to multiple-year averages.  

A programming language is a set of commands, instructions, and other syntax use to create a software program. 

Python is an object-oriented, interpreted, and interactive programming language. It was developed under an Open Source Initiative (OSI)-approved open source license, making it freely usable and distributable.

R is a software language and environment for statistical computing and graphics. R is designed around a true computer language, and it allows users to add additional functionality by defining new functions. R is available as Free Software in source code form. It compiles and runs on a wide variety of UNIX platforms and similar systems (including FreeBSD and Linux), Windows, and MacOS.

The NASA Sea Level Change Data Analysis Tool (DAT) allows for visualization and analysis of NASA datasets of sea level change. The datasets range from sea level observations of ocean temperature salinity and sea surface topography to ice observations and model outputs. The tool provides a means to study anomalies and get immediate results on potential relations between different datasets.

The SeaWiFS Bio-optical Archive and Storage System (SeaBASS) Search application enables users to discover data in the publicly shared archive of in situ oceanographic and atmospheric data maintained by NASA’s Ocean Biology Processing Group (OBPG).

NASA's Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) Data Analysis System (SeaDAS) is a comprehensive software package for the processing, display, analysis, and quality control of ocean color data. While the primary focus of SeaDAS is ocean color data, it is applicable to many satellite-based earth science data analyses. 

SEDAC’s Hazards and Population Mapper (HazPop) is a free mobile application that enables users to easily display recent natural hazard data in relationship to population, major infrastructure, and satellite imagery.