A programming language is a set of commands, instructions, and other syntax use to create a software program. 

Python is an object-oriented, interpreted, and interactive programming language. It was developed under an Open Source Initiative (OSI)-approved open source license, making it freely usable and distributable.

R is a software language and environment for statistical computing and graphics. R is designed around a true computer language, and it allows users to add additional functionality by defining new functions. R is available as Free Software in source code form. It compiles and runs on a wide variety of UNIX platforms and similar systems (including FreeBSD and Linux), Windows, and MacOS.

The SeaWiFS Bio-optical Archive and Storage System (SeaBASS) Search application enables users to discover data in the publicly shared archive of in situ oceanographic and atmospheric data maintained by NASA’s Ocean Biology Processing Group (OBPG).

NASA's Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) Data Analysis System (SeaDAS) is a comprehensive software package for the processing, display, analysis, and quality control of ocean color data. While the primary focus of SeaDAS is ocean color data, it is applicable to many satellite-based earth science data analyses. 

SEDAC’s Hazards and Population Mapper (HazPop) is a free mobile application that enables users to easily display recent natural hazard data in relationship to population, major infrastructure, and satellite imagery. 

SEDAC’s Hazards Mapper enables users to rapidly get an idea of the population, land area, dams, and nuclear power plants that could be impacted by a wide range of natural events, including floods, earthquakes, fires, and volcanic eruptions. 

SEDAC's POPGRID Viewer enables direct comparison of different population datasets based on different data sources and methodologies. The tool incorporates a four-panel display of six different data sets, including Gridded Population of the World, Landscan, WorldPop, and Human Settlements Population Grid.

SEDAC's Population Estimation Service is a web-based service that lets users of a wide variety of map clients and tools quickly obtain estimates of the number of people residing in a user-defined geographic region, without having to download and analyze large amounts of spatial data. 

Smallsats are spacecraft about the size of a large kitchen refrigerator, or smaller, with a mass less than 180 kilograms. CubeSats are a class of smallsat.

The Smallsat Data Explorer (SDX) allows NASA-funded researchers to explore and order catalogued commercial satellite data from multiple commercial vendors in one place.

The Soil Moisture Visualizer, developed by NASA's Oak Ridge National Laboratory DAAC (ORNL DAAC), is a tool that integrates a variety of different soil moisture datasets over North America. The visualization tool incorporates in-situ, airborne, and remote sensing data into one easy-to-use platform. 

The Spatial Data Access Tool (SDAT), developed by NASA's Oak Ridge National Laboratory DAAC (ORNL DAAC), is an Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards-based web application to visualize and download spatial data in various user-selected spatial/temporal extents, file formats, and projections. Datasets including land cover, biophysical properties, elevation, and selected ORNL DAAC archived data are available through SDAT. 

A protocol defines a set of rules used by two or more parties to interact between themselves. A standard is a formalized protocol accepted by most of the parties that implement it. Not all protocols are standards (some are proprietary). Not all standards are protocols (some govern other layers than communication).

State of the Ocean (SOTO), developed by NASA's Pysical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC), is an interactive web-based tool that generates informative maps, animations, and plots that communicate and prove the discovery and analysis of the state of the oceans. 

The Sub-Orbital Order Tool (SOOT) was developed by the Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC) at NASA's Langley Research Center for handling data acquired from suborbital field campaigns that are assigned to and archived at the ASDC. 

Supercomputing refers to the processing of Big Data using the concentrated compute resources of multiple computer systems working in parallel. This combined system of systems is the supercomputer. 

The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) Swath Visualizer provides a visualization of two instruments’ coverage of Earth's surface: the Ka-band Radar Interferometer (KaRIn) and altimeter. Users can search for places of interest to obtain swath information. 

Synthetic aperture radar, or SAR, uses the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum. SAR can penetrate cloud cover and “see through” darkness and weather, allowing a unique view of flood inundation, land cover changes, and modifications of Earth’s surface from landslides, earthquakes, and background tectonic motion. NASA’s home for SAR data and imagery is the Alaska Satellite Facility Distributed Active Archive Center (ASF DAAC). 

NASA's Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center (ORNL DAAC) Terrestrial Ecology Subsetting and Visualization Services (TESViS) provides several means of subsetting Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) data.

Vertex, developed by NASA's Alaska Satellite Facility Distributed Active Archive Center (ASF DAAC), is a graphical search interface for finding synthetic aperture radar (SAR) Data.  

A web application (web app) is a software program that runs on a web server. Unlike traditional desktop applications, which are launched by an operating system, web apps must be accessed through a web browser.

A Web Coverage Service (WCS) offers multi-dimensional coverage data for access over the Internet. WCS Core specifies a core set of requirements that a WCS implementation must fulfill.