The following components are managed by NASA's Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project. The requirements for networks are also managed by ESDIS while the networks themselves are a combination of NASA, national, and international infrastructure. NASA Earth Observation System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) components include the following:
- Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs)
- Science Data Processing Segment (SDPS)
- Science Investigator-led Processing Systems (SIPS)
- Common Metadata Repository (CMR)
- Earth Observing System (EOS) Networks
- ESDIS Metrics System (EMS)
- Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS)
- Land, Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for Earth Observing System (LANCE)
- Earthdata Login
- Web Infrastructure
- International Directory Network (IDN)
- Configuration Management
- EOSDIS Tool Information
The EOSDIS DAACs are custodians of EOS mission data and ensure that data will be easily accessible to users. Acting in concert, the DAACs provide reliable, robust services to users whose needs may cross the traditional boundaries of specific science disciplines, while continuing to support the particular needs of users within the discipline communities. DAAC holdings can be searched from Earthdata Search, which is powered by NASA's Common Metadata Repository (CMR).
EOSDIS is designed as a distributed system, with major facilities at DAACs located throughout the United States. In general, these DAACs exist within other NASA or agencies' institutions and were chosen because they each specialize in a science discipline such as atmosphere, calibrated radiance and solar radiance, cryosphere, human dimensions, land, or ocean.
The DAACs include:
- Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC), at NASA's Langley Research Center in Hampton, VA
- Alaska Satellite Facility DAAC (ASF DAAC), at ASF in Fairbanks, AK
- Crustal Dynamics Distribution Information System (CDDIS), Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC), Level 1 and Atmosphere Archive and Distribution System DAAC (LAADS DAAC), and Ocean Biology DAAC (OB.DAAC), at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD
- Global Hydrometeorology Resource Center (GHRC DAAC), at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL
- Land Processes DAAC (LP DAAC), at the USGS Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center in Sioux Falls, SD
- National Snow and Ice Data Center DAAC (NSIDC DAAC), at NSIDC in Boulder, CO
- Oak Ridge National Laboratory DAAC (ORNL DAAC), at ORNL in Oak Ridge, TN
- Physical Oceanography DAAC (PO.DAAC), at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, CA
- Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC), at the Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) in Palisades, NY
The DAACs serve a broad and growing user community with both EOS data and non-EOS data, working with active user communities that provide advice on priorities for scientific data, levels of service, and needed capabilities.
Science Data Processing Segment (SDPS)
The Science Data Processing Segment (SDPS) performs information management and data archiving and distribution at each DAAC location. Each DAAC performs these functions using a combination of standard capabilities provided by ESDIS and hardware and software specific to the DAAC. Special SDPS hardware and software, known as the EOSDIS Core System (ECS), was developed to support the high ingest rates of EOS instruments. ECS currently resides and operates at three DAACs: ASDC, LP DAAC and NSIDC DAAC. Data products are processed by NASA's Science Investigator-led Processing Systems (SIPS) or, in a few cases, by systems interfacing with the SDPS at the DAACs. The SDPS at the DAACs ingests the data from the processing systems and archives them. The SDPS has interfaces with CMR to provide search and access through CMR clients, for example, Earthdata Search. The SDPS also provides software toolkits to assist instrument teams in their development of product generation software at their Science Computing Facilities (SCFs) to facilitate ingest of the resulting products into SDPS or into DAAC-specific archiving and distribution systems.
Most of the EOS standard products are produced at facilities under the direct control of the instrument Principal Investigators/Team Leaders (PIs/TLs) or their designees. These facilities are referred to as SIPS. The SIPS are geographically distributed across the United States and are generally, but not necessarily, collocated with the PIs/TLs’ SCFs. Products produced at the SIPS using investigator-provided systems and software are sent to appropriate DAACs for archival and distribution. Level 0 Data Products and Ancillary Data that begin the processing sequence are stored at the DAACs and retrieved by the SIPS.
The SIPS include:
- Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer SIPS (AMSR SIPS)
- MODIS Adaptive Processing System SIPS (MODAPS SIPS)
- Microwave Limb Sounder SIPS (MLS SIPS)
- Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere SIPS (MOPITT SIPS)
- Ocean Data Processing System SIPS (ODPS SIPS)
- Ozone Monitoring Instrument SIPS (OMI SIPS)
- Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi-NPP) SIPS
- Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer SIPS (TES SIPS)
CMR is a high-performance, high-quality metadata engine for next-generation EOSDIS applications that will be used to manage the evolution of NASA Earth Science metadata in a unified and consistent way by providing a central storage and access capability that streamlines current workflows while increasing overall data quality and anticipating future capabilities.
Effective access to EOSDIS depends on the end-to-end network connectivity between users and geographically-distributed DAACs. This connectivity is provided by an EOSDIS internal logical network known as the EOS Mission Support network (EMSn) and an external logical network known as the EOS Science Support network (ESSn). These two logical networks consist of a variety of physical networks including wide area and local area networks.
The EMSn (also known as open and closed EBNet) is made up of local-area and wide-area communication circuits and facilities between and among various EOS ground system elements to support EOS mission operations and mission-critical data transfers. The open side of EBnet allows appropriate science data to be transmitted via the Internet to various end users. The closed side of EBnet is protected by firewalls and transports mission-critical data to various EOSDIS subsystems and ground stations via a secure network.
The ESSn is a globally connected logical or virtual science data communication network consisting of several segments of shared IP-based internal and external physical networks (such as the NASA Integrated Services Network (NISN) and the Internet2 IP backbone) to serve the diverse needs of NASA's worldwide science and research community.
EMS collects information from all ingest, archive and distribution interfaces throughout EOSDIS. In addition to data system metrics, EMS has a suite of web analytics tools available to characterize usage and usability of websites.
GIBS provides full resolution visual representations of NASA Earth science data in a free, open, and interoperable manner. Through responsive and highly available web services, it enables interactive exploration of data to support a wide range of applications including scientific research, applied sciences, natural hazard monitoring, and outreach. GIBS provides much of the LANCE near real-time (within 3 hours of satellite observation) imagery, present day, and historical imagery. GIBS can be incorporated into web clients and geographic information system (GIS) applications. It is currently used in NASA's Worldview, Worldview Snapshots, Earthdata Search, and State of the Ocean (SOTO).
LANCE provides access to near real-time products from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2), Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the International Space Station (ISS), Multi-angle Imaging SpecroRadiometer (MISR), Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT), Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), Ozone Mapping Profiler Suite (OMPS) and Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS, including VIIRS Land and VIIRS Atmosphere) instruments in less than 3 hours from observation. The data support applications users who are interested in monitoring and analyzing a wide variety of natural and man-made phenomena. LANCE freely provides access to 100+ data products through FTP servers (Earthdata Login required) and imagery from 100+ products.
Earthdata Login provides a simple, centralized mechanism for user registration and user profile management for all DAAC users accessing data. The information provided by users when they register for Earthdata Login helps NASA better understand how our data are being used and the diverse needs of multiple user communities. This helps us prioritize improvements in data discovery, access, and usability. Registration also allows us to inform users with pertinent information such as the availability of new or updated data products, or data quality issues. In the future, it will allow for new value-added features and customized services resulting in a better user experience.
Earthdata is managed using a content management system (CMS). The custom-designed program called "Conduit" is currently used for Earthdata and has been customized to deal with the particular needs of the Earthdata system. Users wanting to become content editors/contributors should contact the Earthdata Content Management Team, as it requires an Earthdata Login for access. Additional capabilities of the site include the Earthdata Code Collaborative (ECC), Earthdata Wiki, User Support Tool (UST), Earthdata Issue Tracking and Feature Enhancement (Jira),Requirements Collection and Management (Jama), Continuous Integration (Bamboo), and Code Repository (Bitbucket).
The Committee on Earth Observing Satellites (CEOS) IDN home page and search client serve as NASA’s contribution to CEOS. The IDN provides access to more than 32,000 Earth science data set descriptions (stored in CMR) which cover subject areas within Earth and environmental sciences. IDN's mission is to assist researchers, policy makers, and the public in the discovery of and access to data relevant to global change and Earth science research.
NASA's EOSDIS system has a rigorous approach to configuration management. This system has evolved over the years to support changes in software and system development techniques. Configuration management ensures that changes to the baseline configuration are properly and completely defined and presented in such a way that management can evaluate and consider the implications of the proposed change. Factors for the evaluation include the impact on technical, cost, schedule, operations, as well as user impacts.
NASA's Configuration Management EOSDIS Tool (COMET) was created to meet configuration management requirements for ESDIS and Earth Science Mission Operations (ESMO). Access to COMET is controlled by ESDIS and ESMO.